By Woolley Adam
This functional, undemanding, and informative textual content surveys easy ideas of toxicology. it really is a useful consultant to comparing toxicity and comparable info, impending toxicity checking out and interpretation, and realizing the strategies of chance prediction and threat overview and administration.
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Additional info for A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk
In order to get to the site of action in the kidney, the drug has to pass through the gastrointestinal tract and then the liver and the bloodstream. , furosemide) have been associated with effects on the hair cells in the inner ear leading to hearing impairment. Any program of work that seeks to investigate the effects of a novel compound intended for extensive, regulated use in man must, at some point, include experiments in animals that will examine these interrelationships. The down side is that, animal research is expensive and may not give a wholly reliable result when related to humans.
The epithelium of the proximal tubule is a common target for toxic attack, but as long as the basement membrane on which these cells rest is not breached, repair can be very rapid, if exposure is stopped. Other parts of the kidney, notably the glomerulus and the pelvis, do not repair so readily in parts due to differences in embryonic origin. As suggested by the example of the kidney, tissues which do not divide readily, do not repair easily or in some cases, at all. Of these, the usual example is the central nervous system, another tissue with a large functional reserve that can be overwhelmed by insidious toxic actions over a period of years.
As indicated above for paracetamol, the liver has a large capacity for repair of extensive lesions; other tissues associated with easy repair are those that can divide and replicate themselves quickly, such as the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The kidney falls into both the reparative and the next, nonreparative category. The epithelium of the proximal tubule is a common target for toxic attack, but as long as the basement membrane on which these cells rest is not breached, repair can be very rapid, if exposure is stopped.