By Surendranath DASGUPTA
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Additional resources for A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. I.-V
4· Then for the first time there arose desire, Which was the primal germ of mind, within it. And sages, searching in their heart, discovered In Nothing the connecting bond of Being. 1. 6. \Vho is it knows? Who here can tell us surely From what and how this universe has risen? And whether not till after it the gods lived? Who then can know from what it has arisen? 7· The source from which this universe has risen, And whether it was made, or uncreated, He only knows, who from the highest heaven Rules, the all-seeing lord-or does not He know 1 ?
These works were probably composed for old men who had retired into the forest and were thus unable to perform elaborate sacrifices requiring a multitude of accessories and articles which could not be procured in forests. In these, meditations on certain symbols were supposed to be of great merit, and they gradually began to supplant the sacrifices as being of a superior order. It is here that we find that amongst a certain section of intelligent people the ritualistic ideas began to give way, and philosophic speculations about the nature of truth became gradually substituted in their place.
The passage of the Indian mind from the Brahmanic to the U pani~ad thought is probably the most remarkable event in the ·history of philosophic thought. Sna Upani§ad, etc. There were however some exceptions such as the l\HiQgiikya, Jiibala, Paiilgala, Saunaka, etc. 32 The E artier Upanz~ads [cH. systems in astronomy. yagarbha into the atman and the Brahman of the Upani~ads seems to me to be very improbable, though I am quite willing to admit that these conceptions were swallowed up by the atman doctrine when it had developed to a proper extent.