By F. Sherwood. Taylor
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Extra resources for A History of Industrial Chemistry
Forms of ADH also differ between tissues. Higher levels of class I ADH are located in liver, which is where most ethanol metabolism takes place. A type of ADH known as class IV ADH is located in the gastrointestinal tract and may play some role in ethanol metabolism as well. This form of ADH may also be responsible for the increased risk of gastric cancer seen with heavy ethanol consumption, as it leads to the production of the suspected carcinogen acetaldehyde in the upper GI tract. Along with ADH, another enzyme important in ethanol metabolism is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which converts aldehydes to carboxylic acids (a step that requires NAD+ as a cofactor).
One factor that influences the site of absorption is the time a toxicant spends in that region. Thus, little absorption usually occurs in the mouth because of the limited time a toxicant spends there, while the much longer time it takes a toxicant to move through the small intestine gives plenty of opportunity for absorption. Also, surface area of the region is a factor, as is pH. Some toxicants tend to ionize, which is to gain or lose electrons and thus become negatively or positively charged ions.
A more hydrophobic prodrug (an inactive compound that has an active metabolite) could provide efficient transport to the site of action, then be metabolized to an active polar molecule at the site of action. 8), often leads to products that are equal to or more toxic than the parent molecules. Most organophosphorothioate and organophosphorodithioate insecticides are propesticides that are biotransformed to much more toxic and reactive organophosphates through desulfuration reactions. 9). The lower-toxicity parent compounds are used rather than the metabolites because the metabolites are much too toxic for practical handling and application.