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Extra resources for Adv Fuel Pellet Mtls, Designs for Water-Cooled Reactors (IAEA TECDOC-1416)
Indeed, the instrumented press used allows to measure continuously the applied stress at the upper punch σapp, the transmitted stress to the lower punch σtr (σapp > σtr due to friction) and also the radial forces σr exerted to the die . Eq (4) is used to determine stresses value at different height. A careful analysis of the evolution of the stresses σz and σr recorded during compact axial discharge gives an evaluation of Poisson’s coefficient. Figure 2 compares the calculated and experimental paths that follows stress state in the (P,Q) plan during compact discharge.
All the obtained precipitates of U-Gd were calcined under the cycle shown below. 75 min. Precipitate at 20ºC 400ºC Air 60 min. 35 min. 120 min. 60 min. 4. Milling, pressing and sintering The powders thus obtained, were milled during four hours in a stainless-steel ball mill in order to increase their bulk densities. The results obtained after the milling are shown in the next table. Data of milled UO2 powder precipitated at pH 4-6 are also given in order to compare. Table X % Gd (metal) 0 2 4 6 8 Milled UO2 (pH 4-6 precipitation) Average diameter (microns) Specific surface area (m2/g) Oxygen / metal Ratio TAP density (g/cc) 0,21 0,10 0,55 0,38 0,80 3,75 8,00 10,10 11,80 11,02 2,07 2,09 2,19 2,16 2,24 2,66 2,54 2,39 2,45 2,26 3,10 4,09 2,08 3,33 Several pressing pressures were studied, resulting the 240 MPa the selected one because it gave the highest “green” density in each case.
This code may be also used for design purposes (tools, cycles…) or to perform sensitivity analysis (powder properties, friction coefficient…). Experimental characteri-zation of powders remains necessary to supply model parameters. On-going programs aimed at extending the database to actual MOX powders are performed in the CEA facilities (Cadarache). Further calculations will be also carried out to determine optimized cycle conditions adapted to this material. , MORET F. Numerical modeling of powder metallurgy processes, Materials and Design, 21, 359–364 (2000).