By Marc A. Williams
Pt. 1. floor amendment recommendations -- pt. 2. Analytical innovations and functions
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Extra resources for Allergens and respiratory pollutants: The role of innate immunity
Foremost among these considerations is the lack of vitamin D in the diet, disruption of neuro-endocrine circuits as well as the protective effect of breastfeeding against the development or incidence of both allergic asthma and diabetes. Although these concepts are beyond the scope of this chapter, the issue of vitamin D is particularly interesting. Epidemiological and population-based studies have indicated a cause-and-effect relationship with vitamin D deficiency and the increased incidence of asthma observed in developed countries.
However, the nature of the environmental “danger” triggers seen by immature DC defines the nature of T helper cell differentiation and response. This is usually considered as a three-phase response. First, naïve CD4+ Th cells are antigen-specifically activated to a so-called Th0 precursor population of undifferentiated Th cells. Second, Th0 cells are stimulated to proliferate and differentiate to either a Th1 or Th2 effector T cell populations and in the third phase of CD4+ T helper cell differentiation, Th1 and Th2 cells are fine-tuned to provide the appropriate helper effector functions necessary for antigen specific B cell populations to provide a humoral response as well as for the coordinate activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells.
Since such cells do not express co-stimulatory molecules or secrete the necessary repertoire of CD4+ T cell stimulatory cytokines (see below for additional details), they possess only a limited ability to fully activate CD4+ T cells. g. circulatory blood-derived DC and lymphatic-derived tissue DC) and thymic DC. Other professional antigen-presenting cells include B cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells of the thymus and of course monocytes and macrophages as briefly discussed above. Though there are many subsets of DC in the lung, peripheral circulation and throughout other major organs in the body, this issue will not be discussed in this chapter since it is critically discussed in other chapters found in this volume.